Control of growth during regeneration

Curr Top Dev Biol. 2014;108:95-120. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-391498-9.00003-6.


Regeneration is a process by which organisms replace damaged or amputated organs to restore normal body parts. Regeneration of many tissues or organs requires proliferation of stem cells or stem cell-like blastema cells. This regenerative growth is often initiated by cell death pathways induced by damage. The executors of regenerative growth are a group of growth-promoting signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, EGFR, Hippo/YAP, and Wnt/β-catenin. These pathways are also essential to developmental growth, but in regeneration, they are activated in distinct ways and often at higher strengths, under the regulation by certain stress-responsive signaling pathways, including JNK signaling. Growth suppressors are important in termination of regeneration to prevent unlimited growth and also contribute to the loss of regenerative capacity in nonregenerative organs. Here, we review cellular and molecular growth regulation mechanisms induced by organ damage in several models with different regenerative capacities.

Keywords: Growth; Regeneration; Signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ambystoma mexicanum
  • Animals
  • Body Patterning
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • ErbB Receptors / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Hepatocytes / cytology
  • Hydra
  • Ligands
  • Liver / physiology
  • Mice
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Xenopus


  • Ligands
  • ErbB Receptors