Background/purpose: Several studies have shown the renoprotective effects of pentoxifylline in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study was conducted to examine whether there was an increased benefit of including pentoxifylline with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in the treatment of CKD.
Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. A total of 661 Stage 3B-5 CKD patients who received ACEI or ARB treatment were recruited. The patients were divided into the pentoxifylline use group and the no pentoxifylline group. Renal survival analysis of the two groups was compared. Subgroup analysis was performed by dividing the patients into lower [urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR)<1 g/g] and higher (UPCR ≥ 1 g/g) proteinuria subgroups.
Results: There was no between-groups difference regarding mortality and cardiovascular events. Addition of pentoxifylline showed a better renal outcome (p = 0.03). The protective effect of add-on pentoxifylline was demonstrated in the higher proteinuria subgroup (p = 0.005). In the multivariate Cox regression model, pentoxifylline use also showed a better renal outcome [hazard ratio (HR): 0.705; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.498-0.997; p = 0.048]. This effect was more prominent in the higher proteinuria subgroup (HR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.413-0.877; p = 0.008).
Conclusion: In the advanced stages of CKD, patients treated with a combination of pentoxifylline and ACEI or ARB had a better renal outcome than those treated with ACEI or ARB alone. This effect was more prominent in the higher proteinuria subgroup. More large randomized control trials are needed to provide concrete evidence of the add-on effect of pentoxifylline.
Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blockers; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; chronic kidney disease; pentoxifylline; renal outcome.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.