We report an occurrence of progressive loss of transplant function and ultimately transplant failure after living related kidney transplantation involving monozygotic twin brothers of Afro-Caribbean origin who were both heterozygous for the G1 and G2 kidney disease risk alleles in the APOL1 gene, which encodes apolipoprotein L-I. A 21-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease of unknown cause received a kidney from his brother, who was confirmed as a monozygotic twin by microsatellite analysis. Thirty months after transplantation, the patient presented with proteinuria and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate; a biopsy of the transplant showed typical focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. He received steroid therapy, but progressed to kidney failure 5 years later. The twin brother had normal kidney function without proteinuria at the time of transplantation; however, 7 years later, he was found to have decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (40mL/min/1.73m(2)) and proteinuria (protein excretion of 2.5g/d). APOL1 genotyping revealed that both donor and recipient were heterozygous for the G1 and G2 alleles. This case is in stark contrast to the expected course of kidney transplantation in identical twins and suggests a role for APOL1 polymorphisms in both the donor and recipient.
Keywords: APOL1 polymorphism; African ancestry; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); kidney transplantation; living donor; monozygotic twin; renal disease; risk allele.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.