We report on the assembly of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) prior to ligand activation and its ligand-induced reorganization at the cell membrane. We apply single-molecule localization microscopy to obtain quantitative information on receptor cluster sizes and copy numbers. Our data suggest a dimeric pre-assembly of TNF-R1, as well as receptor reorganization toward higher oligomeric states with stable populations comprising three to six TNF-R1. Our experimental results directly serve as input parameters for computational modeling of the ligand-receptor interaction. Simulations corroborate the experimental finding of higher-order oligomeric states. This work is a first demonstration how quantitative, super-resolution and advanced microscopy can be used for systems biology approaches at the single-molecule and single-cell level.