A novel IFITM5 mutation in severe atypical osteogenesis imperfecta type VI impairs osteoblast production of pigment epithelium-derived factor

J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun;29(6):1402-11. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2173.


Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types V and VI are caused, respectively, by a unique dominant mutation in IFITM5, encoding BRIL, a transmembrane ifitm-like protein most strongly expressed in the skeletal system, and recessive null mutations in SERPINF1, encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). We identified a 25-year-old woman with severe OI whose dermal fibroblasts and cultured osteoblasts displayed minimal secretion of PEDF, but whose serum PEDF level was in the normal range. SERPINF1 sequences were normal despite bone histomorphometry consistent with type VI OI and elevated childhood serum alkaline phosphatase. We performed exome sequencing on the proband, both parents, and an unaffected sibling. IFITM5 emerged as the candidate gene from bioinformatics analysis, and was corroborated by membership in a murine bone co-expression network module containing all currently known OI genes. The de novo IFITM5 mutation was confirmed in one allele of the proband, resulting in a p.S40L substitution in the intracellular domain of BRIL but was absent in unaffected family members. IFITM5 expression was normal in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and BRIL protein level was similar to control in differentiated proband osteoblasts on Western blot and in permeabilized mutant osteoblasts by microscopy. In contrast, SERPINF1 expression was decreased in proband osteoblasts; PEDF was barely detectable in conditioned media of proband cells. Expression and secretion of type I collagen was similarly decreased in proband osteoblasts; the expression pattern of several osteoblast markers largely overlapped reported values from cells with a primary PEDF defect. In contrast, osteoblasts from a typical case of type V OI, with an activating mutation at the 5'-terminus of BRIL, have increased SERPINF1 expression and PEDF secretion during osteoblast differentiation. Together, these data suggest that BRIL and PEDF have a relationship that connects the genes for types V and VI OI and their roles in bone mineralization.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Collagen Type I / metabolism
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Exome / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Nerve Growth Factors / biosynthesis*
  • Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism*
  • Osteocalcin / metabolism
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta / genetics*
  • Protein Stability
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Radiography
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Serpins / biosynthesis*
  • Serpins / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Collagen Type I
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Eye Proteins
  • IFITM5 protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Serpins
  • pigment epithelium-derived factor
  • Osteocalcin
  • Alkaline Phosphatase

Supplementary concepts

  • Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 6