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. 2014 Oct;86(4):819-27.
doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.553. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Relative Risks of Chronic Kidney Disease for Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease Across Races Are Similar

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Free PMC article

Relative Risks of Chronic Kidney Disease for Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease Across Races Are Similar

Chi Pang Wen et al. Kidney Int. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Some suggest race-specific cutpoints for kidney measures to define and stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence for race-specific clinical impact is limited. To address this issue, we compared hazard ratios of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and albuminuria across races using meta-regression in 1.1 million adults (75% Asians, 21% Whites, and 4% Blacks) from 45 cohorts. Results came mainly from 25 general population cohorts comprising 0.9 million individuals. The associations of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were largely similar across races. For example, in Asians, Whites, and Blacks, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for eGFR 45-59 versus 90-104 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) were 1.3 (1.2-1.3), 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and 1.3 (1.1-1.7) for all-cause mortality, 1.6 (1.5-1.7), 1.4 (1.2-1.7), and 1.4 (0.7-2.9) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.6 (11.1-68.7), 11.2 (6.0-20.9), and 4.1 (2.2-7.5) for ESRD, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-299 mg/g or dipstick 1+ versus an albumin-to-creatinine ratio under 10 or dipstick negative were 1.6 (1.4-1.8), 1.7 (1.5-1.9), and 1.8 (1.7-2.1) for all-cause mortality, 1.7 (1.4-2.0), 1.8 (1.5-2.1), and 2.8 (2.2-3.6) for cardiovascular mortality, and 7.4 (2.0-27.6), 4.0 (2.8-5.9), and 5.6 (3.4-9.2) for ESRD, respectively. Thus, the relative mortality or ESRD risks of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were largely similar among three major races, supporting similar clinical approach to CKD definition and staging, across races.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Association of eGFR with all-cause mortality (A), cardiovascular mortality (B), and ESRD (C) across three racial groups in general population cohorts. The shaded area or whiskers represent 95% CIs. The reference (diamond) is eGFR 95 mL/min/1.73m2. Dots represent statistically significant points. Difference in HR among racial groups were tested using meta-regression with whites as a reference, and stars along the bottom of each panel indicate a significant interaction at P<0.05. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, serum total cholesterol concentration, body mass index, and albuminuria.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Association of albuminuria with all-cause mortality (A), cardiovascular mortality (B), and ESRD (C) across three racial groups in general population cohorts. The whiskers represent 95% CIs. The reference category is ACR <10 mg/g or dipstick negative. Dots represent statistically significant points. Difference in hazard ratios (HR) among racial groups were tested using meta-regression with whites as a reference. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, serum total cholesterol concentration, body mass index, and eGFR categories.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Hazard ratios (HRs) of clinical outcomes according to eGFR and albuminuria categories across three racial groups in general population cohorts. Each number represents a pooled HR from meta-analysis adjusted for covariates and compared with the reference cell (REF) within each race. Bold numbers indicate statistical significance at P<0.05. Color shading indicates the strength of association (approximately one quarter of all cells across racial groups are shaded in each color; Green: low; yellow: mild; orange: moderate; red: high). Difference in HR among racial groups were tested using meta-regression with whites as a reference, and stars (*) indicate a significant interaction at P<0.05.

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