Effect of gluten free diet on immune response to gliadin in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity

BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb 13;14:26. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-14-26.

Abstract

Background: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring in a few hours/days after gluten and/or other wheat protein ingestion and rapidly improving after exclusion of potential dietary triggers. There are no established laboratory markers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, although a high prevalence of first generation anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class has been reported in this condition. This study was designed to characterize the effect of the gluten-free diet on anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Methods: Anti-gliadin antibodies of both IgG and IgA classes were assayed by ELISA in 44 non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 40 celiac disease patients after 6 months of gluten-free diet.

Results: The majority of non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (93.2%) showed the disappearance of anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class after 6 months of gluten-free diet; in contrast, 16/40 (40%) of celiac patients displayed the persistence of these antibodies after gluten withdrawal. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients anti-gliadin antibodies IgG persistence after gluten withdrawal was significantly correlated with the low compliance to gluten-free diet and a mild clinical response.

Conclusions: Anti-gliadin antibodies of the IgG class disappear in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reflecting a strict compliance to the gluten-free diet and a good clinical response to gluten withdrawal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Celiac Disease / blood
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Female
  • Food Hypersensitivity / diet therapy*
  • Food Hypersensitivity / immunology
  • Gliadin / immunology*
  • Glutens / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Glutens
  • Gliadin