Pathogenesis and prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage

Clin Perinatol. 2014 Mar;41(1):47-67. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Dec 12.


Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major neurologic complication of prematurity. Pathogenesis of IVH is attributed to intrinsic fragility of germinal matrix vasculature and to the fluctuation in the cerebral blood flow. Germinal matrix exhibits rapid angiogenesis orchestrating formation of immature vessels. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure remains the most effective means of preventing IVH. Therapies targeted to enhance the stability of the germinal matrix vasculature and minimize fluctuation in the cerebral blood flow might lead to more effective strategies in preventing IVH.

Keywords: Angiogenesis; Astrocytes; Germinal matrix hemorrhage; Glucocorticoids; Indomethacin; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Pericytes; Premature infants.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Basement Membrane / metabolism
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / prevention & control
  • Cerebral Ventricles / blood supply
  • Cerebral Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology*
  • Fibronectins / metabolism
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / prevention & control
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology*
  • Pericytes / metabolism


  • Fibronectins
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Glucocorticoids