An observational study of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in cystic fibrosis

J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Sep;13(5):557-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.01.010. Epub 2014 Feb 11.


Background: In cystic fibrosis (CF), cross-sectional studies have reported sputum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 to be elevated and negatively correlated with FEV1. This longitudinal study examined the association between MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) to prognostic parameters in CF.

Method: A cross-sectional survey of CF and control subjects; CF patients were followed up for a median of 49 months. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were quantified in sputum and plasma.

Results: Seventy-three patients with CF, median age 22 years, and 40 controls were recruited. Fifty-three of these CF patients were followed up. Prospectively, in CF subjects, plasma MMP-9 activity was adversely associated with FEV1 (β -1.15 (95% CI -2.10, -0.20), p = 0.019) and rate of FEV1 decline, and plasma TIMP-1 was adversely associated with mortality: hazard ratio 3.66 (1.91-7.04), p < 0.001.

Conclusions: These associations further justify investigation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 as biomarkers for short- to medium-term FEV1 decline and mortality in patients with CF.

Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; FEV(1); MMP-9; Mortality; TIMP-1.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cystic Fibrosis / enzymology*
  • Cystic Fibrosis / mortality
  • Cystic Fibrosis / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood
  • Sputum / enzymology
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / analysis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / analysis
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • TIMP1 protein, human
  • TIMP2 protein, human
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
  • MMP9 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9