Objective: Advanced glycation end products play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. Recently, we showed that tissue advanced glycation end products deposition, noninvasively assessed by skin autofluorescence (SAF), is increased in patients with peripheral artery disease. The aim of the present study was to establish whether SAF is associated with all-cause mortality and with fatal or nonfatal major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with peripheral artery disease.
Approach and results: We performed a single-center prospective cohort study of 252 patients with peripheral artery disease (mean age, 66±11 years), recruited from the outpatient clinic (October 2007 to June 2008) who were followed until June 2013. SAF was measured with the AGE Reader. The primary end point was all-cause mortality, and the secondary end point was fatal or nonfatal MACE, defined as cardiovascular death and nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke. During a median follow-up of 5.1 (interquartile range, 5.0-5.3) years, 62 (25%) patients died. Fatal or nonfatal MACE occurred in 62 (25%) patients. A higher SAF was associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per unit increase, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.88; P=0.0002) and fatal or nonfatal MACE (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.60; P=0.001), also after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and the use of lipid-lowering drugs (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34; P=0.009 and hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.17; P=0.03, for all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal MACE, respectively).
Conclusions: SAF as a measure of advanced glycation end products deposition is independently associated with all-cause mortality and fatal or nonfatal MACE in patients with peripheral artery disease after a 5-year follow-up.
Keywords: advanced glycation end products; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular diseases; peripheral artery disease.