A previously identified putative rhoptry antigen of Plasmodium falciparum is composed of two major components, one of 80 kDa and a doublet at 42/40 kDa. An inhibitory monoclonal antibody immunoprecipitated both the 80 kDa protein and the 42/40 kDa doublet, but immunoblotted only the 80 kDa component. A second monoclonal antibody, raised against the affinity purified complex, immunoblotted only the 42 kDa band under non-reducing conditions. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections of parasites immunolabeled with these monoclonal antibodies and colloidal gold anti-mouse conjugate has confirmed that this antigen is localised in the rhoptry organelles of mature schizonts and free merozoites. The antigen is associated with apparent membranous structures released from free merozoites. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation with two different monoclonal antibodies, and protease digestion experiments, have clearly demonstrated that this antigen is a complex composed of two separate and distinct proteins, and does not represent a monomer/dimer pair. The 80 kDa protein is synthesised as an 84 kDa precursor.