Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been considered a possible trigger of myalgic encephalomyelitis/ chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and could also be linked with unspecified encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of XMRV proviral sequences in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA from 150 patients with ME/CFS and 30 apparently healthy individuals, as well as in PBL and brain tissue DNA from 61 individuals with/without unspecified encephalopathy. Targeting the XMRV proviral gag gene sequence by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) with previously reported primer sets, provirus was not detected either in DNA from patients with ME/CFS and individuals with unspecified encephalopathy, or in apparently healthy individuals. Only the positive control gave the amplimer of 410 base pairs (bp) after the second round that corresponds to the expected XMRV gag gene fragment. In addition, DNA was found to be negative in nPCR assays, targeting XMRV specific env gene sequence, using previously described primer sets. Also only positive control gave the amplimer of 218 bp after the second round, corresponding to the expected XMRV env gene fragment. Using nPCR we found no evidence of XMRV infection either in apparently healthy individuals or in patients with ME/CFS and individuals with unspecified encephalopathy.