Background & aims: Various dietary interventions have been used to treat patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), yielding varied results. This systematic review assesses the efficacy of different dietary therapies in inducing disease remission.
Methods: We performed a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases for studies investigating the efficacy of dietary interventions (reducing infiltration by immune cells <15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies) for pediatric and adult patients with EoE. Summary estimates, including 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated for exclusive feeding with amino acid-based elemental formulas, allergy test result-directed food elimination diets, and 6-food elimination diets (SFED). A fixed- or random-effects model was used depending on heterogeneity (I(2)); publication bias risks were assessed by means of funnel plot analysis.
Results: The search yielded 581 references; of these, 33 were included in the quantitative summary. We analyzed data on a total of 1317 patients with EoE (1128 children and 189 adults) who received different dietary treatments. Elemental diets were effective for 90.8% of cases (95% CI, 84.7%-95.5%; I(2) = 52.3%), SFED for 72.1% (95% CI, 65.8%-78.1%; I(2) = 0), and allergy test result-directed food elimination for 45.5% of cases (95% CI, 35.4%-55.7%; I(2) = 75.1%). Additional strategies (elimination of cow's milk, gluten-free diets, and 4-food elimination diet) were also evaluated. Adults vs children had no significant differences in remission after dietary interventions (67.2% vs 63.3%).
Conclusions: Dietary interventions are effective in producing histologic remission in patients with EoE. Elemental diets and SFEDs were the most effective, achieving <15 eosinophils/high-power field in 90.8% and 72.1% of patients, respectively.
Keywords: Esophagus; Immune Regulation; Inflammation; Therapy.
Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.