The cellular receptor for HIV-1 is the leucocyte differentiation antigen, CD4. Blocking of HIV-1 infectivity can be achieved with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to some, but not all epitopes of this antigen. We demonstrate here, by inhibition of virus infection, blocking of syncytium formation and inhibition of pseudotype infection with a panel of CD4 MAbs, that HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates share the same cellular receptor, the CD4 glycoprotein. It is also shown that very similar epitopes of this molecule are involved in virus binding. We infer from these data that the binding sites on these viruses are highly conserved regions, and may therefore make good targets for potential vaccines. In addition, we show that cell surface expression of CD4 is similarly modulated after infection of cell lines by all the viruses.