Background: Previous research on clinical and high-risk samples suggests that signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be detected between 1 and 2 years of age. We investigated signs of ASD at 18 months in a population-based sample and the association with later ASD diagnosis.
Methods: The study sample includes 52,026 children born 2003 through 2008 and is a subset of children that participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa), a population-based longitudinal study, and the Autism Birth Cohort (ABC), a sub-study on ASD. Parents completed all 23 items from the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) at 18 months.
Results: The M-CHAT 6-critical-item criterion and the 23-item criterion had a specificity of 97.9% and 92.7% and a sensitivity of 20.8% and 34.1%, respectively. In the 173 children diagnosed with ASD to date, 60 children (34.7%) scored above the cut-off on either of the screening criteria. The items with the highest likelihood ratios were 'interest in other children', 'show objects to others' and 'response to name'.
Conclusion: Even though one-third of the children who later received an ASD diagnosis were identified through M-CHAT items, the majority scored below cut-off on the screening criteria at 18 months. The results imply that it might not be possible to detect all children with ASD at this age.
Keywords: Autism Birth Cohort Study; M-CHAT; Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study; autism spectrum disorders; early identification; longitudinal studies.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.