Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES)

Body Image. 2014 Mar;11(2):126-36. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.12.006. Epub 2014 Feb 16.


The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences.

Keywords: Body image; Guilt; Instrument development; Pride; Shame.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Awareness*
  • Body Image*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Emotions*
  • Female
  • Gender Identity
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Concept*
  • Shame
  • Social Values
  • Students / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Young Adult