Preparation and characterization of Tripterygium wilfordii multi-glycoside nanoparticle using supercritical anti-solvent process

Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Feb 17;15(2):2695-711. doi: 10.3390/ijms15022695.


The aim of this study was to prepare nanosized Tripterygium wilfordii multi-glycoside (GTW) powders by the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process (SAS), and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. Ethanol was used as solvent and carbon dioxide was used as an antisolvent. The effects of process parameters such as precipitation pressure (15-35 MPa), precipitation temperature (45-65 °C), drug solution flow rates (3-7 mL/min) and drug concentrations (10-30 mg/mL) were investigated. The nanospheres obtained with mean diameters ranged from 77.5 to 131.8 nm. The processed and unprocessed GTW were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the GTW nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. The processed and unprocessed GTW were tested against Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). It was concluded that physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW nanoparticles could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arthritis / chemically induced
  • Arthritis / drug therapy
  • Carbon Dioxide / chemistry
  • Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid
  • Female
  • Glycosides / chemistry*
  • Glycosides / therapeutic use
  • Interleukin-1alpha / blood
  • Interleukin-1beta / blood
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Particle Size
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Synovial Fluid / metabolism
  • Temperature
  • Tripterygium / metabolism*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Glycosides
  • Interleukin-1alpha
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Carbon Dioxide