Introduction: Periodontal disease belongs to a group of diseases with more than one cause, it is a disease of a multifactorial etiology. Although bacteria are the main cause of the disease, immunoinflammatory reaction of the host is responsible for the majority of destructive changes in periodontal tissue. The main issue in the evaluation of the success of periodontal therapy is the pluralism of the bacteria and their dynamic changes during the duration, on the one hand, and the possible inaccuracy of classical microbiological analysis in determination of the dominant role of a microorganism, or the success of its reduction or elimination, on the other. Thanks to advances of microbiology and technological development, it is possible to make an assessment of specific microorganisms in a large number of samples of sub-gingival plaque with extreme precision, using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The development of laser technology and the discovery of its significant antimicrobial effects have introduced and presented this treatment modality as a possible auxiliary method of periodontitis treatment.
Materials and methods: The sample for the study estimating the efficiency of application of diode lasers in the reduction of periodontal pockets consisted of 1164 periodontal pockets in 24 subjects of both sexes. For laser irradiation of periodontal pockets a diode laser was used, a low-power laser (SmilePro 980, Biolitec, Germany), working in a mode precisely tuned for treatment of periodontal pockets. All subjects underwent: general anamnesis, periodontal status, and orthopantogram radiograph analysis. Following a standard periodontal preparation, a sample of subgingival plaque was collected for molecular-biological analysis (real-time PCR method) prior to laser irradiation of periodontal pockets, immediately following the irradiation, and during the control examination 3 months after irradiation.
Results: The results of the molecular-biological analysis of target periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus (Aggregatibacter) actinomycetemcomitans (AA) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) isolated from periodontal pockets prior to laser irradiation, immediately after laser irradiation, and at the control examination after 3 months were processed statistically (using real-time PCR method). The results showed that there was a statistically significant decrease in CT values for the tested bacteria immediately after treatment and the control examination, compared with the level of CT values for the same bacteria before treatment.
Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, we concluded that diode laser irradiation reduces the number of active periodontal pathogens. We believe that the use of diode lasers, as a supplementary method in the treatment of periodontal disease, is extremely useful and efficient, and can be recommended as part of standard clinical practice.
Keywords: diode laser; laser therapy.; periodontal disease; periopathogen.