The elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G interact with ribosomes during protein synthesis: EF-Tu presents incoming aminoacyl transfer RNA to the programmed ribosome as an EF-Tu-GTP-tRNA ternary complex and EF-G promotes translocation of peptidyl-tRNA and its associated messenger RNA from the A to the P site after peptidyl transfer. Both events are accompanied by ribosome-dependent GTP hydrolysis. Here we use chemical probes to investigate the possible interaction of these factors with ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes. We observe EF-G-dependent footprints in vitro and in vivo around position 1,067 in domain II of 23S rRNA, and in the loop around position 2,660 in domain VI.EF-Tu gives an overlapping footprint in vitro at positions 2,655 and 2,661, but shows no effect at position 1,067. The 1,067 region is the site of interaction of the antibiotic thiostrepton, which prevents formation of the EF-G-GTP-ribosome complex and is a site for interaction with the GTPase-related protein L11 (ref. 3). The universally conserved loop in the 2,660 region is the site of attack by the RNA-directed cytotoxins alpha-sarcin and ricin, whose effects abolish translation and include the loss of elongation factor-dependent functions in eukaryotic ribosomes.