The predictive value of urinary UPIb mRNA levels in VUR and recurrent urinary tract infections

Clin Nephrol. 2014 Mar;81(3):152-8. doi: 10.5414/cn107778.


Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a risk factor for progressive kidney damage especially when it is accompanied by urinary tract infections (UTIs). Uroplakins (UPs) are integral proteins found in the structure of urothelium. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of urinary UPIb messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels as an early and noninvasive diagnostic tool for VUR and as an indicator for predisposition to UTI.

Methods: Urinary UPIb mRNA levels were determined in patients experiencing their first UTI episode (n = 28) or recurrent UTI (n = 31) as well as patients having UTI with VUR (n = 30). These results were compared to a control group (n = 26).

Results: The UPIb mRNA values among patients diagnosed with their first UTI were lower, but not statistically different, than those in the control group. The UPIb mRNA levels of patients with recurrent UTI and UTI with VUR were significantly lower than those observed in control individuals.

Conclusion: Urine UPIb levels may be useful for predicting the risk of recurrent UTI in patients diagnosed with their first UTI and may also be considered as a noninvasive screening test for VUR.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Escherichia coli / isolation & purification
  • Escherichia coli Infections / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli Infections / microbiology
  • Escherichia coli Infections / urine
  • Female
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • RNA, Messenger / urine*
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Tract Infections / genetics*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / microbiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / urine
  • Urine / microbiology
  • Uroplakin Ib / genetics*
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / complications
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / genetics*
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / urine


  • Genetic Markers
  • RNA, Messenger
  • UPK1B protein, human
  • Uroplakin Ib