Cost-effectiveness of a nurse facilitated, cognitive behavioural self-management programme compared with usual care using a CBT manual alone for patients with heart failure: secondary analysis of data from the SEMAPHFOR trial

Int J Nurs Stud. 2014 Sep;51(9):1214-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Jan 24.


Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a nurse facilitated, cognitive behavioural self-management programme for patients with heart failure compared with usual care including the un-facilitated access to the same manual, from the perspective of the NHS.

Design: Data were obtained from a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomized controlled 'open' trial conducted in seven centres in the UK between 2006 and 2008. Effectiveness was estimated as Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Resource use was measured prospectively on all patients using information provided by patients in postal questionnaires, case-note review, electronic record review and interviews with patients. Unit costs were obtained from the literature and applied to the relevant resource use to estimate total costs. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data.

Results: There were no substantial differences in the utility scores between treatment groups in all follow-up assessments, in the use of medication or outpatient visits and both groups report a similar frequency of contact with health care professionals. After controlling for baseline utility and using imputed dataset, treatment was associated with a reduction in QALY of 0.004 and a additional cost of £69.49. The probability that the intervention is cost-effective for thresholds between £20,000 and £30,000 is around 45%.

Conclusions: There is little evidence that the addition of the intervention had any effect on costs or outcomes. The uncertainty around both estimates of cost and effectiveness mean that it is not reasonable to make recommendations based on cost-effectiveness alone.

Keywords: Cognitive therapy; Cost effectiveness; Heart failure; Programme evaluation; Self-care.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / economics
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / nursing*
  • Heart Failure / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Manuals as Topic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Care / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome