Objective: Focal nerve enlargement is a characteristic finding in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We performed this study to assess the distribution of nerve enlargement through ultrasonographic examination of peripheral nerves and to correlate the ultrasonographic findings with clinical features.
Methods: To compare the ultrasonographic features of 10 subjects with CIDP with those of 18 healthy controls, we bilaterally measured the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the vagus, brachial plexus, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, tibial, common peroneal, and sural nerves. We also analyzed correlations between CSAs and various clinical and electrophysiological features.
Results: Mean CSAs were significantly larger in CIDP patients than controls, especially at proximal and non-entrapment sites. CSAs were significantly correlated with muscle strength at initial presentation, but not at the time of ultrasonography. The CSAs of the median and ulnar nerves at the mid-forearm, tibial nerve at 7 cm proximal to the medial malleolus, and sural nerve correlated with the nerve conduction velocity of the corresponding region.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography revealed widely distributed nerve enlargement, especially in proximal regions and non-entrapment sites, in patients with CIDP compared with healthy controls. Nerve enlargement correlated well with the electrophysiologic function of the nerve, but not current clinical status.
Significance: Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography is a supportive tool in the diagnosis of CIDP.
Keywords: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; Cross-sectional area; Ultrasonography.
Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.