The distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems of three decapod crustacean species, Cancer borealis, Homarus americanus, and Panulirus interruptus, was studied. The stomatogastric ganglion showed dense staining in the neuropil, but none in the somata. A single neuron stained in the esophageal ganglion. Lucifer yellow backfills and intracellular injections followed by incubation with the substance P antibody showed that the axons of this neuron project into the inferior esophageal nerves towards the paired commissural ganglia. The commissural ganglia showed a pronounced projection from a large bundle of fibers in the anterior medial portion of the circumesophageal connective. Additionally, less dense neuropil and stained somata were seen in the commissural ganglia. Staining was completely blocked by preabsorption with authentic substance P, physalaemin, eledoisin, and substance K. These data suggest that in the nervous system of crustacean species a molecule with C-terminal homology to substance P and other tachykinins is released as a neuroregulator in the stomatogastric ganglion.