Clinical utility of fecal biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):742-56. doi: 10.1097/01.MIB.0000442681.85545.31.


Diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases rely on clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic parameters. Inflammatory biomarkers have been investigated as a surrogate marker for endoscopic diagnosis of inflammatory activity. Fecal inflammatory biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin are direct products of bowel inflammation and provide an accurate and noninvasive diagnostic and monitoring modality for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This report contains an overview of the currently existing literature pertaining to clinical implications of fecal biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / diagnosis*
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / pathology
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / therapy*
  • Crohn Disease / diagnosis*
  • Crohn Disease / pathology
  • Crohn Disease / therapy*
  • Disease Progression
  • Feces / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Lactoferrin / analysis*
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / analysis*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Pyruvate Kinase / analysis
  • Recurrence
  • S100 Proteins / analysis
  • S100A12 Protein
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
  • S100 Proteins
  • S100A12 Protein
  • S100A12 protein, human
  • Pyruvate Kinase
  • Lactoferrin
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases