Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important complication of HIV infection. Rates of pneumonia decrease with the use of antiretroviral therapy but continue to be higher than in HIV uninfected individuals. Risk factors for pneumonia include low blood CD4+ count, unsuppressed plasma HIV load, smoking, injection drug use and renal impairment. Immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae and smoking cessation can reduce this risk. It is unclear whether newly reported viral respiratory pathogens (such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, will be more of a problem in HIV-infected individuals than the general population.