Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered as an attractive treatment option for young mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. This retrospective SFGM-TC study analyzed the outcome of 500 MCL patients treated with ASCT and investigated parameters that may modify the outcome of patients who proceeded to ASCT upfront (n=396). For all patients, median age at ASCT was 56 years (range, 26-71). Median follow-up was 34 months. Three-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)were 63.5% [95 % CI, 58.7–68.6 %] and 79.5 % [95 % CI, 75.3–83.4 %], respectively. Median time from ASCT to relapse was 22 months (range, 0–136 m). For patients transplanted upfront and in multivariate analysis, age (HR=2 [1.2–3.4], p=.01, and HR=2.3 [1.2–4.5], p=.01), disease status at time of ASCT (HR=1.7 [1.1–2.6], p=.01 and HR=1.8 [1.1–3.1], p=.03), and use of rituximab (HR=0.5 [0.3–0.8], p=.002 and HR=0.5 [0.3–0.9], p=.01) were statistically predictive for both PFS and OS. Also, first line treatment including anthracycline and high-dose cytarabine followed by ASCT conditioned with TAM improved PFS. To conclude, this study suggests that ASCT in MCL can provide a high response rate but may not be sufficient to cure MCL even when ASCT is performed upfront, highlighting the need for innovative approaches before ASCT, aiming to increase complete response rate, and after ASCT, to maintain response.