The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytogenetic effects in humans exposed to automobile exhaust. The induction of chromosome damage was studied in an exposed group of 28 traffic policemen with exposure of over 10 years and a control group of 15 policemen trainers from the Faculty of Police. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations as well as the mean sister-chromatid exchanges were significantly higher among the traffic policemen than in the control group. The cause for this elevated chromosome damage is most likely due to their exposure to pollutants from automobile exhaust, however, the increase is not correlated with the blood lead level or the duration of employment. On the other hand, the increase in chromosome damage among the traffic policemen is enhanced further by smoking.