Fluid biomarkers improve the diagnostic accuracy in dementia and provide an objective measure potentially useful as a therapeutic response in clinical trials. The role of fluid biomarkers in patient care is a rapidly evolving field. Here, we provide a review and recommendations regarding the use of fluid biomarkers in clinical practice as discussed at the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD4) convened in Montreal, 4 to 5 May 2012. At present, there is no consensus regarding the optimal methodology for conducting quantification of plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. In addition, since there is insufficient evidence supporting clinical applications for plasma Aβ-peptide measures, the CCCDTD4 does not recommended plasma biomarkers either for primary care or for specialists. Evidence for CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau in the diagnosis of Alzheimer pathology is much stronger, and can be considered at the tertiary care level for selected cases to improve diagnostic certainty, particularly in those cases presenting atypical clinical features.