Androgenetic alopecia

G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Feb;149(1):15-24.


Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of alopecia, affecting up to 80% of men and 50% of women in the course of their life. AGA is caused by a progressive reduction in the diameter, length and pigmentation of the hair. Hair thinning results from the effects of the testosterone metabolite dehydrotestosterone (DHT) on androgen-sensitive hair follicles. In women, AGA produces diffuse thinning of the crown region with maintenance of the frontal hairline (Ludwig pattern AGA). In premenopausal women, AGA can be a sign of hyperandrogenism, together with hirsutism and acnes. Male pattern is characterized by bitemporal recession of the frontal hairline, followed by diffuse thinning at the vertex. Today, scalp dermoscopy is used routinely in patients with androgenetic alopecia, as it facilitates the diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other diseases, allows staging of severity, and allows you to monitor the progress of the disease in time and response to treatment. AGA is a progressive disease that tends to worsen with time. Medical treatment of AGA includes topical minoxidil, antiandrogen agents, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Alopecia* / diagnosis
  • Alopecia* / drug therapy
  • Alopecia* / epidemiology
  • Alopecia* / etiology
  • Alopecia* / physiopathology
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Biopsy
  • Comorbidity
  • Contraindications
  • Dermoscopy
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Hair Follicle / pathology
  • Hirsutism / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperandrogenism / complications
  • Ketoconazole / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Menopause
  • Minoxidil / adverse effects
  • Minoxidil / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • Scalp / pathology
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Testosterone / analogs & derivatives
  • Testosterone / metabolism
  • Virilism / complications


  • 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors
  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Testosterone
  • Minoxidil
  • boldenone
  • Ketoconazole