Perturbations to the hedgehog pathway in sea urchin embryos

Methods Mol Biol. 2014:1128:211-21. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-974-1_14.


The Hedgehog pathway has been shown to be an important developmental signaling pathway in many organisms (Ingham and McMahon. Genes Dev 15:3059-3087, 2001). Recently that work has been extended to developing echinoderm embryos (Walton et al. Dev Biol 331(1):26-37, 2009). Here we describe several methods to perturb the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the sea urchin. These include microinjection of Morpholinos and mRNA constructs as well as treatments with small molecule inhibitors. Finally we provide simple methods for assaying Hedgehog phenotypes in the sea urchin embryo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Hedgehog Proteins / physiology*
  • Microinjections
  • Morpholinos / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Sea Urchins / genetics
  • Sea Urchins / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tissue Culture Techniques


  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Morpholinos
  • RNA, Messenger