Single, dual and multiple respiratory virus infections and risk of hospitalization and mortality

Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jan;143(1):37-47. doi: 10.1017/S0950268814000302. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Abstract

Respiratory virus infections cause a significant number of hospitalization and deaths globally. This study investigated the association between single and multiple respiratory virus infections and risk of admission to a general ward, intensive care unit or death in patients aged 0-105 years (mean ± s.d. = 24·4 ± 24·1 years), from North West England, that were tested for respiratory virus infections between January 2007 and June 2012. The majority of infections were in children aged ⩽5 years. Dual or multiple infections occurred in 10·4% (1214/11 715) of patients, whereas single infection occurred in 89·6% (10 501/11 715). Rhinovirus was the most common co-infecting virus (occurring in 69·5%; 844/1214 of co-infections). In a multivariate logistic regression model, multiple infections were associated with an increased risk of admission to a general ward [odds ratio (OR) 1·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-1·7, P < 0·0001]. On the other hand, patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (hPIV1-3), as a single infection, had a higher risk of being admitted to a general ward (OR 1·49, 95% CI 1·28-1·73, P < 0·0001 and OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·003-1·8, P = 0·05, respectively); admitted to an intensive-care unit or dying (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·20-2·0, P = 0·001 and OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·02-2·40, P = 0·04, respectively). This result emphasizes the importance of RSV, hPIV and mixed infections and calls for research on vaccines, drugs and diagnostic tests targeting these respiratory viruses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coinfection / epidemiology*
  • Coinfection / mortality*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • England / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Survival Analysis
  • Virus Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Virus Diseases / mortality*
  • Young Adult