Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory infection in infants and young children. Severe clinical manifestation of RSV infection is a bronchiolitis, which is common in infants under six months of age. Recently, RSV has been recognized as an important cause of respiratory infection in older populations with cardiovascular morbidity or immunocompromised patients. However, neither a vaccine nor an effective antiviral therapy is currently available. Moreover, the interaction between the host immune system and the RSV pathogen during an infection is not well understood. The innate immune system recognizes RSV through multiple mechanisms. The first innate immune RSV detectors are the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and nucleotide-biding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). The following is a review of studies associated with various PRRs that are responsible for RSV virion recognition and subsequent induction of the antiviral immune response during RSV infection.