Livistona chinensis seeds inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis in vivo via suppression of the Notch pathway

Oncol Rep. 2014 Apr;31(4):1723-8. doi: 10.3892/or.2014.3051. Epub 2014 Feb 24.


Livistona chinensis seeds have been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of cancer. Our published data suggest that Livistona chinensis seeds are able to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth in vitro and in vivo via promotion of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its antitumor activity, in the present study, we used an HCC xenograft mouse model to evaluate the effect of an ethanol extract of Livistona chinensis seeds (EELC) on tumor angiogenesis and on the activation of the Notch pathway. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) in HCC xenograft mouse tumors was evaluated via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CD31. The mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGFR-2, Notch, Dll4 and Jagged1 was evaluated using RT-PCR and IHC, respectively. We found that EELC profoundly reduced MVD in the HCC mouse tumors, demonstrating the in vivo inhibitory effect of EELC on tumor angiogenesis. In addition, EELC treatment reduced the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in tumor tissues. Furthermore, EELC treatment inhibited the expression of Notch, Dll4 and Jagged1. Our findings suggest that Livistona chinensis seeds inhibit tumor angiogenesis through suppression of the Notch pathway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arecaceae / chemistry*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism*
  • Phytotherapy / methods*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Receptors, Notch / drug effects*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Plant Extracts
  • Receptors, Notch