Colorectal cancer is a common disease in both men and women (being the third most common cancer in men and the second most common among women) and thus represents an important and serious public health issue, especially in the western world. Although it is a well-established fact that cancers of the large intestine produce symptoms relatively earlier at a stage that can be easily cured by resection, a large number of people lose their lives to this deadly disease each year. Recent times have seen an important change in the incidence of colorectal cancer in different parts of the world. The etiology of colorectal cancer is multifactorial and is likely to involve the actions of genes at multiple levels along the multistage carcinogenesis process. Exhaustive efforts have been made out in the direction of unraveling the role of various environmental factors, gene mutations, and polymorphisms worldwide (as well as in Kashmir-"a valley of gastrointestinal cancers") that have got a role to play in the development of this disease so that antitumor drugs could be developed against this cancer, first, and, finally, the responsiveness or resistance to these agents could be understood for combating this global issue.