Having a deep genetic structure evolved during its domestication and adaptation, the Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) displays considerable physiological and morphological variations. Here, we describe deep whole-genome sequencing of the aus rice cultivar Kasalath by using the advanced next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to gain a better understanding of the sequence and structural changes among highly differentiated cultivars. The de novo assembled Kasalath sequences represented 91.1% (330.55 Mb) of the genome and contained 35 139 expressed loci annotated by RNA-Seq analysis. We detected 2 787 250 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 7393 large insertion/deletion (indel) sites (>100 bp) between Kasalath and Nipponbare, and 2 216 251 SNPs and 3780 large indels between Kasalath and 93-11. Extensive comparison of the gene contents among these cultivars revealed similar rates of gene gain and loss. We detected at least 7.39 Mb of inserted sequences and 40.75 Mb of unmapped sequences in the Kasalath genome in comparison with the Nipponbare reference genome. Mapping of the publicly available NGS short reads from 50 rice accessions proved the necessity and the value of using the Kasalath whole-genome sequence as an additional reference to capture the sequence polymorphisms that cannot be discovered by using the Nipponbare sequence alone.
Keywords: Oryza sativa; SNPs and indels; comparative genomics; gain and loss of genes; genome re-sequencing.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.