Thousands of bacterial phylotypes colonise the human body and the host response to this bacterial challenge greatly influences our state of health or disease. The concept of infectogenomics highlights the importance of host genetic factors in determining the composition of human microbial biofilms and the response to this microbial challenge. We hereby introduce the term 'genetic dysbiosis' to highlight the role of human genetic variants affecting microbial recognition and host response in creating an environment conducive to changes in the normal microbiota. Such changes can, in turn, predispose to, and influence, diseases such as: cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis. This review presents the state of the evidence on host genetic factors affecting dysbiosis and microbial misrecognition (i.e. an aberrant response to the normal microbiota) and highlights the need for further research in this area.
Keywords: dysbiosis; genetic; inflammation; microbiome.