Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Dec;27(18):1915-21. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2014.898056. Epub 2014 Apr 9.


Objectives: The present study determined the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on oxidative stress in the brain and liver as well as the element levels in growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age.

Methods: Thirty-two rats and their offspring were equally divided into three different groups: the control, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 900 MHz and 1800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/d during pregnancy and neonatal development. At the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, brain samples were obtained.

Results: Brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups. There were no statistically significant differences in glutathione, vitamin E, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc concentrations between the three groups.

Conclusion: EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring. Mobile phone-induced EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats.

Keywords: Antioxidants; brain; element; growing rat; mobile phone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / radiation effects*
  • Electromagnetic Radiation*
  • Female
  • Fetal Development / radiation effects
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Growth and Development* / radiation effects
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Neuroprotective Agents / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress / radiation effects*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / etiology
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Vitamin E / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Vitamin E
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione