Metabolic syndrome is not a disease per se, but is a term that highlights traits that may have an increased risk of disease, approximately 2-fold for cardiovascular disease and 5-fold or more for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are believed to be at the core of most cases of metabolic syndrome, although further research is required to truly understand the pathophysiology behind the syndrome and the gene-environment interactions that increase susceptibility. The mainstay of treatment remains lifestyle changes with exercise and diet to induce weight loss and pharmacologic intervention to treat atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk; Diabetes risk; Dyslipidemia; Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; Obesity.
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