Background: Simvastatin is widely used to lower cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases, although accumulating evidence suggests that statins, such as simvastatin, also exert numerous anti-tumoral effects.
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration.
Methods: Migration assays were performed to evaluate CCL17-induced colon cancer cell (HT-29) chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth and apoptosis were assessed using a proliferation assay and annexin V assay, respectively. Active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using a G-LISA assay.
Results: We found that simvastatin dose-dependently decreased CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Simvastatin had no effect on colon cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis. Inhibition of beta chemokine receptor 4, CCR4, reduced CCL17-evoked activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Moreover, administration of mevalonate reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Interestingly, co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) antagonized the inhibitory impact of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17. Moreover, we observed that simvastatin decreased CCL17-induced activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Administration of mevalonate and GGPP reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-provoked RhoA activation in colon cancer cells.
Conclusions: Taken together, our findings show for the first time that HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via inhibition of geranylgeranylation and RhoA activation. Thus, statins, such as simvastatin, might be effective tools to antagonize CCL17-dependent migration and metastasis of colon cancer cells.
Keywords: Chemokines; Colon; Metastasis; Migration; Simvastatin.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.