Sequential inoculation versus co-inoculation in Cabernet Franc wine fermentation

Food Sci Technol Int. 2015 Apr;21(3):203-12. doi: 10.1177/1082013214524585. Epub 2014 Feb 28.


A study has been carried out in order to determine the effect of the lactic acid bacteria inoculation time on the kinetic of vinification and on chemical and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Franc wines. Traditional vinifications, with lactic acid bacteria inoculated after completion of alcoholic fermentation were compared with vinifications where yeast and bacteria were co-inoculated at the beginning of vinification. One commercial yeast strain and an autochthonous Oenococcus oeni strain (C22L9), previously identified and selected at our laboratory, were used. Monitoring of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations was carried out by yeast and lactic acid bacteria counts and by measuring l-malic acid concentration. Wines were chemically characterized and analysed for volatile compounds content. A sensory analysis, consisting of a descriptive and a triangular test, was also carried out. Results from this study showed that the concurrent yeast/bacteria inoculation of musts at the beginning of vinification produced a reduction in duration of the process without an excessive increase in volatile acidity. Differences in volatile compounds content and the corresponding impact on the sensorial profile of wines were also displayed. These results suggest that co-inoculation is a worthwhile alternative for winemaking of Cabernet Franc wines, if compared with traditional post-alcoholic fermentation lactic acid bacteria inoculation.

Keywords: Malolactic fermentation; co-inoculation; red wine; sequential inoculation; volatile compounds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Fermentation
  • Food Analysis
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Lactic Acid / analysis
  • Lactobacillaceae*
  • Malates / analysis
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Oenococcus / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Taste
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Wine / analysis*
  • Wine / microbiology*


  • Malates
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Lactic Acid
  • malic acid