Viral Determinants of Influenza A Virus Host Range

J Gen Virol. 2014 Jun;95(Pt 6):1193-1210. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.062836-0. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Abstract

Typical avian influenza A viruses are restricted from replicating efficiently and causing disease in humans. However, an avian virus can become adapted to humans by mutating or recombining with currently circulating human viruses. These viruses have the potential to cause pandemics in an immunologically naïve human population. It is critical that we understand the molecular basis of host-range restriction and how this can be overcome. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms by which influenza viruses adapt to replicate efficiently in a new host. We predominantly focus on the influenza polymerase, which remains one of the least understood host-range barriers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Animals
  • Birds
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / genetics
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases / physiology
  • Genes, Viral
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / genetics
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / physiology
  • Host Specificity / genetics
  • Host Specificity / immunology
  • Host Specificity / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza A virus / pathogenicity*
  • Influenza A virus / physiology
  • Influenza in Birds / immunology
  • Influenza in Birds / virology
  • Influenza, Human / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Mutation
  • Neuraminidase / genetics
  • Neuraminidase / physiology
  • Nucleoproteins / genetics
  • Nucleoproteins / physiology
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Proteins / physiology

Substances

  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
  • Nucleoproteins
  • Viral Proteins
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
  • Neuraminidase