Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e88483. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088483. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4).

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Hemiptera / physiology*
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism*
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / parasitology
  • Proteomics
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Saliva / metabolism*
  • United States

Substances

  • DNA Primers
  • Insect Proteins

Grant support

Research was supported by USDA NIFA Cooperative Agreement Grant 59- 1931-2-225. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.