Anthropometrics and body composition by dual energy X-ray in children of obese women: a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (the Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring [LiPO] study)

PLoS One. 2014 Feb 24;9(2):e89590. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089590. eCollection 2014.


Objective: In obese women, 1) to assess whether lower gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy in the lifestyle intervention group of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) resulted in differences in offspring anthropometrics and body composition, and 2) to compare offspring outcomes to a reference group of children born to women with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI).

Research design and methods: The LiPO (Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring) study was an offspring follow-up of a RCT with 360 obese pregnant women with a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy including dietary advice, coaching and exercise. The trial was completed by 301 women who were eligible for follow-up. In addition, to the children from the RCT, a group of children born to women with a normal BMI were included as a reference group. At 2.8 (range 2.5-3.2) years, anthropometrics were measured in 157 children of the RCT mothers and in 97 reference group children with Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-score as a primary outcome. Body composition was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray (DEXA) in 123 successful scans out of 147 (84%).

Results: No differences between randomized groups were seen in mean (95% C.I.) BMI Z-score (intervention group 0.06 [-0.17; 0.29] vs. controls -0.18 [-0.43; 0.05]), in the percentage of overweight or obese children (10.9% vs. 6.7%), in other anthropometrics, or in body composition values by DEXA. Outcomes between children from the RCT and the reference group children were not significantly different.

Conclusions: The RCT with lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women did not result in any detectable effect on offspring anthropometrics or body composition by DEXA at 2.8 years of age. This may reflect the limited difference in GWG between intervention and control groups. Offspring of obese mothers from the RCT were comparable to offspring of mothers with a normal BMI.

Trial registration: NCT00530439 NCT01918319 NCT01918423.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adult
  • Body Composition*
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Mothers
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Overweight / etiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prognosis

Associated data


Grant support

Funding for this study was obtained from Odense University Hospital, The Hede Nielsen Family foundation, The A.P. Møller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science and Sister lodge No. 3 Freja I.O.O.F. MT is a recipient of PhD scholarships from The Region of Southern Denmark, The faculty of Health sciences, University of Southern Denmark and The Danish PhD school of Molecular Metabolism. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.