Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2014 Mar;34(2):146-62. doi: 10.1111/opo.12123.


The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cortex and, on the basis of initial data, appear to improve both binocular and monocular visual function, even in adults with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies that have investigated the structure, measurement and treatment of binocular vision in observers with strabismic, anisometropic and mixed amblyopia.

Keywords: amblyopia; binocular vision; plasticity; suppression; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amblyopia / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Photic Stimulation / methods
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*
  • Visual Cortex / physiopathology