Survey finds that many prisons and jails have room to improve HIV testing and coordination of postrelease treatment

Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Mar;33(3):434-42. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2013.1115.


Early diagnosis of HIV and effective antiretroviral treatment are key elements in efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV. Incarcerated populations are disproportionately affected by HIV, with the disease's prevalence among inmates estimated to be three to five times higher than among the general population. Correctional institutions offer important opportunities to test for HIV and link infected people to postrelease treatment services. To examine HIV testing and policies that help HIV-positive people obtain treatment in the community after release, we administered a survey to the medical directors of the fifty state prison systems and of forty of the largest jails in the United States. We found that 19 percent of prison systems and 35 percent of jails provide opt-out HIV testing, which is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Additionally, fewer than 20 percent of prisons and jails conform to the CDC's recommendations regarding discharge planning services for inmates transitioning to the community: making an appointment with a community health care provider, assisting with enrollment in an entitlement program, and providing a copy of the medical record and a supply of HIV medications. These findings suggest that opportunities for HIV diagnosis and linking HIV-positive inmates to community care after release are being missed in the majority of prison systems and jails.

Keywords: Criminal justice; HIV discharge services; HIV testing: jails; HIV testing: prisons; HIV/AIDS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Serodiagnosis / trends*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cooperative Behavior
  • Forecasting
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Health Services Accessibility / trends*
  • Health Services Needs and Demand / trends
  • Humans
  • Insurance Coverage / trends
  • Interdisciplinary Communication
  • Long-Term Care / organization & administration
  • Long-Term Care / trends
  • Mass Screening / organization & administration
  • Mass Screening / trends*
  • Prisons / organization & administration
  • Prisons / trends*
  • Quality Improvement / trends*
  • United States


  • Anti-HIV Agents