P-cresyl sulfate is a valuable predictor of clinical outcomes in pre-ESRD patients

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:526932. doi: 10.1155/2014/526932. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Abstract

Background/aims: Previous studies have reported p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) was related to endothelial dysfunction and adverse clinical effect. We investigate the adverse effects of PCS on clinical outcomes in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort study.

Methods: 72 predialysis patients were enrolled from a single medical center. Serum biochemistry data and PCS were measured. The clinical outcomes including cardiovascular event, all-cause mortality, and dialysis event were recorded during a 3-year follow-up.

Results: After adjusting other independent variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed age (HR: 1.12, P = 0.01), cardiovascular disease history (HR: 6.28, P = 0.02), and PCS (HR: 1.12, P = 0.02) were independently associated with cardiovascular event; age (HR: 0.91, P < 0.01), serum albumin (HR: 0.03, P < 0.01), and PCS level (HR: 1.17, P < 0.01) reached significant correlation with dialysis event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher serum p-cresyl sulfate (>6 mg/L) were significantly associated with cardiovascular and dialysis event (log rank P = 0.03, log rank P < 0.01, resp.).

Conclusion: Our study shows serum PCS could be a valuable marker in predicting cardiovascular event and renal function progression in CKD patients without dialysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology*
  • Cresols / blood*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / blood*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology
  • Sulfuric Acid Esters / blood*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Cresols
  • Sulfuric Acid Esters
  • 4-cresol sulfate