Validation of the Spanish version of the 9-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire

Health Expect. 2015 Dec;18(6):2143-53. doi: 10.1111/hex.12183. Epub 2014 Mar 5.


Objective: To translate and assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) for measuring patients' perceptions of how clinicians' performance fits the SDM process.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting and participants: Data were collected in primary care health centres. Patients suffering from chronic diseases and facing a medical decision were included in the study.

Measurements: The original German SDM-Q-9 was translated to Spanish using the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures as the methodological model for Spanish translation. Reliability (internal consistency) and construct validity [exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)] were assessed.

Results: The final Spanish version of the SDM-Q-9 was tested in a primary care sample of 540 patients. The SDM-Q-9 presented adequate reliability and acceptable validity. Internal consistency yielded a Cronbach's alpha of 0.885 for the whole scale. EFA showed a two-factorial solution, and for the CFA, the best solution was obtained with a one-dimensional factor with the item 1 excluded, which produced the best indexes of fit.

Discussion and conclusions: The Spanish version of the SDM-Q-9 showed adequate reliability and acceptable validity parameters among primary care patients. The SDM-Q-9 is suitable for use in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries with similarly organized health-care systems. The use of the SDM-Q-9 may contribute to the evaluation of SDM process from the patient's perspective.

Keywords: Spain; patient involvement; psychometrics; questionnaires; shared decision making.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Participation*
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Primary Health Care
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spain
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Translations*
  • Young Adult