47,XXX: what is the prognosis?

Pediatrics. 1988 Oct;82(4):619-30.


Eleven unselected 47,XXX girls, now 15 to 22 years of age, have been observed from birth in a prospective study of children with sex chromosome anomalies. A description of their growth and development is presented. The 47,XXX infants were not generally distinguishable from chromosomally normal children in the first year of life, even though there was a slight delay in neuromotor development. By 2 years of age, developmental delays in speech and language often became evident, and speech therapy was often necessitated in the preschool years. Early school problems included speech and language deficiencies, lack of coordination, poor academic performance, and immature behavior; these persisted throughout the school years. By high school age, a 47,XXX girl was generally tall and often subject to somatic complaints. Sexual development was generally normal. Seven of the 11 propositae had a diagnosed psychiatric disorder or disturbance at some time during adolescence. Variability within this syndrome is great; one proposita is in college and another is mentally retarded. The frequency of the diagnosis of the 47,XXX karyotype by genetic amniocentesis is estimated to be 1/1000, the same incidence as in the newborn population. Expectant parents must be counseled as to the significance of this karyotype and prognostic information must be given. Suggested guidelines are included.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Height
  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intelligence
  • Language Development Disorders / etiology
  • Motor Skills
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations / complications
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations / psychology*
  • X Chromosome*