Fission and fusion of mitochondrial tubules are the main processes determining mitochondrial shape and size in cells. As more evidence is found for the involvement of mitochondrial morphology in human pathology, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of mitochondrial fission and fusion. Mitochondrial morphology is highly sensitive to changing environmental conditions, indicating the involvement of cellular signaling pathways. In addition, the well-established structural connection between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria has recently been found to play a role in mitochondrial fission. This minireview describes the latest advancements in understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling mitochondrial morphology, as well as the ER-mediated structural maintenance of mitochondria, with a specific emphasis on mitochondrial fission.