Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Singaporean children

Int J Paediatr Dent. 2015 Mar;25(2):73-8. doi: 10.1111/ipd.12100. Epub 2014 Mar 7.


Background: There is a lack of data on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Asia, but this is not an indication that MIH is rare in the Asian population. Early identification of MIH is important as affected teeth frequently display post-eruptive enamel loss which would result in rapid caries progression.

Aim: This objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of MIH in Singaporean children.

Design: Patients were recruited from 30 schools across Singapore. All children were examined by a single dentist, and the judgement criteria used were based on the 2003 European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria.

Results: A total of 1083 children; average age of 7.7 ± 0.3 years were examined. One hundred and thirty-five children (12.5%) had MIH. A significantly higher proportion of children of the Malay ethnicity had MIH, compared to Chinese children (P = 0.02). Post-eruptive enamel breakdown and the presence of atypical restorations were correlated with increasing number of MIH teeth/child (Rho= 0.599, P < 0.001) and the cumulative enamel opacity colour score (Rho = 0.601, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest the role of ethnicity in MIH occurrence and that MIH severity may be influenced by the number of MIH teeth/child and the cumulative enamel opacity colour score.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / ethnology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor
  • Male
  • Molar
  • Prevalence
  • Singapore / epidemiology